Krakatoa is an active volcanic island in Sunda strait, between the island of Java and Sumatra in Indonesia. The name is used for the island group, the main island (also called Rakata), and the volcano as a whole. The best-known eruption of Krakatoa culminated in a series of massive explosions on August 26–27, 1883, which was among the most violent volcanic events in modern and recorded history. The explosion was distinctly heard as far away as Perth in Western Australia, about 3,110 km away, and the island of Rodrigues near Mauritius, about 4,653 km away. The eruption of Krakatoa was equivalent to 200 megatons of TNT, about 13,000 times the nuclear yield that destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of the World War II.

In the years before the 1883 eruption, seismic activity around the volcano was intense, with

some earthquakes. Beginning 20 May 1883, three months before the final explosion, steam venting began to occur regularly from Parbuwatan. Eruptions of ash reached distance of 6 km and explosions could be heard in Jakarta 160 km away. Activity died down by the end of May, with no records of activity until mid June. Eruptions started again around 16 June, when loud explosions were heard and a thick black cloud covered the islands for five days. On 24 June an east wind blew this cloud away and two ash columns were seen issuing from Krakatoa.
On August 27, a series of four huge explosions almost entirely destroyed the island. The explosions were so violent that they were heard 3,500 km away in Perth, Western Australia and the island of Rodrigues near Mauritius, 4,800 km away. The pressure wave from the final explosion was recorded on barographs around the world. Ash was propelled to a height of 80 km.

The eruptions of the Krakatoa destroyed the ¾ of the island and destroy Danan and Parbuwatan Mountain. Another effect of this eruption is the tsunami and the decreasing of average global temperatures to 5 until 10 below in 10 until 20 years. Weather patterns continued to be chaotic for years and temperatures did not return to normal until 1888.

This eruption is said to be the greatest eruption that ever been recorded in history. The sound of the explosion is heard untill 4.600 km from the central of the eruption. The decreasing of the temperature was the most destroying effect of the Krakatoa eruption. Eruptions at the volcano since 1927 have built a new island in the same location, named Anak Krakatau. This island currently has a radius of roughly 2 kilometers and a high point around 300 meters above sea level, growing 5 meters each year.

Origins Of HIV
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), the virus that causes AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome), originated in non-human primates in sub-Saharan Africa and was transferred to humans during the late 19th or early 20th century. Two types of HIV infect humans are HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is more virulent, is easily transmitted and is the cause of the majority of HIV infections globally.

AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome)
Acquired means a change to living thing that is not produce by genes. Immuno means body protection system. Deficiency means not enough (shortage). Syndrome means a set of physical conditions that show you have a particular disease or medical problem. AIDS is a disease that caused by virus which destruct the human immunity system that virus is HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). Therefore, a lot of diseases are easily get to human body and potentially caused death. So, AIDS is a group of diseases that caused by the destruction of human immunity system which caused by the HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus).

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
HIV is virus that destruct the human immunity system. HIV attack one kind of leukocytes that has duty to prevent from the infection. HIV can not live outside the body. So, HIV can not transmitted through the social interaction (shaking hands, use same swimming pool and bathroom, etc).

Transmission of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
The transmission of HIV can be done in some ways:
1. Sexual contact with person who is infected by HIV/AIDS
2. Through the use of infected needles, syringes and razor blades
3. Babies can get it from their mothers when they are born
4. Breast feeding
5. Blood transfussion which is infected by HIV

Signs & Symptomps
HIV infection has basically 4 stages: incubation period, acute infection, latency stage, and AIDS. The initial incubation period upon infection is asymptomatic and usually lasts between two and four weeks. The second stage, acute infection, which lasts an average of 28 days and can include symptoms such as fever, swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), pharyngitis (sore throat), rash, myalgia (muscle pain), malaise, and mouth and esophageal sores. The latency stage, which occurs third, shows few or no symptoms and can last anywhere from two weeks to twenty years and beyond. AIDS, the fourth and final stage of HIV infection shows as symptoms of various opportunis tic infections.

Prevention of HIV/AIDS
The prevention of HIV/AIDS can be done in some ways:
1. Be faithful to one partner or have fewer partner
2. Using condoms
3. Avoid of pre-marital sex
4. Avoid the needle exchange
5. Preventing the HIV transmission from HIV positive mothers to their infants during pregnancy, birth, & breastfeeding
6. Make sure that the blood that will be transfuted is safe
Electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons of an atom, a molecule, or other physical structure. Knowledge of electron configuration useful in understanding the structure of the periodic table and the chemical bond that hold the atoms together. Electrons are able to move from one orbital to another by emission or absorption of a quantum energy, in the form of a photon. The electron configuration is based on the Aufbau principle, Hund principle, and Pauli principle. One shell can hold 2n2 electrons. But, the last shell can not hold more than 8 electrons and if the electrons is more than 8, the 8 electrons move to the new shell before the last shell and the rest electron(s) is(are) in the last shell and that electron would called as the valence electron. Valence electron(s) is(are) important in determining how the atom reacts chemically with other atoms. Group of an element in the periodic table is depends on the number of valence electron that the element has. If the valence electron is 1, then that element belongs to group 1. The period of an element is depends on the number of the shell that each element has. If the number of shells are 2, means that element has period number of two. The elements that are in the same group have some similarity in their chacteristics of the physical and chemical properties.

Niels Bohr was the first to propose that the periodicity in the properties of elements can be explained by the electronic structure of the atom. Bohr’s original configurationns would seem strange to a present day chemist, sulfur was given as instead of 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4 (2.8.6). The following year E.C. Stoner incorporated Sommerfeld’s third quantum number into the description of the electron shells, and correctly predicated the shell structure of the sulfur to be 2.8.6. However, neither Bohr’s and Stoner’s system could correctly describe the changes in atonomic spectra in a magnetic field (the Zeeman effect). Bohr was aware of this shortcoming and had written to his friend, Wolfgang Pauli to ask for his help in saving quantum theory. Pauli realized that the Zeeman effect must due only by the outermost electons of the atom, and was able to reproduce Stoner’s shell structure, but with the correct structure of sub shells, by his inclusion of a fourth quantum number and his exclusion principle:
It should be forbidden for more than one electron with the same value of the main quantum number n to have the same value for the other three quantum numbers k [l], j [ml] and m [ms].

The Aufbau Principle was an important part of Bohr’s original concept of electron configuration. It may be stated as:
A maximum two electrons are put into orbitals in the order of increasing orbital energy: the lowest energy orbitals are filled before electrons are placed in higher energy orbitals.
The Allende meteorite fell at 1:05 AM (local time) on February 8, 1969. It created a huge fireball then shattered and rained fragments over the area of the strewn field in Chihuahua, Mexico State.It scattered thousands of fragments over an area of 48 km × 7 km. The Allende Meteorite is classified as meteorite that has type of chondrite meteorite, class of carbonaceous chondrite, and group of CV3. Like many meteorites, The Allende entered the atmosphere and friction began to heat it up. The main mass of the meteorite exploded and the fragments fell over the area that shown in the picture as the "Allende strewn field”. It was named with a village that near the place where that meteorite fell, Pueblito de Allende.

Specimens of the Allende meteorite were found to contain a fine grained carbon rich matrix with many chondrules, both matrix and chondrules consisting a lot of the mineral olivine. There was found to be a small amount of carbon (including graphite and diamond), and many organic compounds, including amino acids, some substance that are not known in Earth. Iron is the substance that makes up 24% of the meteorite. Unlike many other chondrites, Allende is almost completely lacking in Fe-Ni metal.

When Allende fell down it has weight of two tonnes. The parent body of Allende is estimated to have weighed over 30 tonnes. The original stones of Allende Meteorite are believed to have been approximately the size of an automobile traveling towards the Earth at more than 10 miles per second.
The Allende meteorite formed from nebular dust and gas during the early formation of the solar system. Allende meteorite is notable for possessing abundant, large calcium aluminium rich inclusions, which are among the oldest objects formed in the Solar System.

Allende is often called "the best studied meteorite in history". This statement come because Allende fell in early 1969, just months before the Apollo program was to return the first moon rocks. This was a time of great excitement and energy among planetary scientists. As a result, the scientific community was immediately ready to study the new meteorite, Allende. A number of museums around the world launched expeditions to Mexico to collect samples of the Allende Meteorite.
Before the Allende fall, CV3 carbonaceous chondrites were very rare. Only 16 falls are known today. CV3s are still rare, but now we have the Allende samples. This samples is very usefull for the human knowledge about the universe, the start of live in the Earth or the start of live in our solar system. The Allende sample is not only usefull for the human knowledge about the universe, but it also important for the improvement of the technology.

untuk manusia yang telah lama kuijinkan tinggal di dalamku

mataku tidak bisa lagi melihat dengan jelas..
telingaku tidak bisa lagi kugunakan dengan baik...
tubuhku kian ringkih dan lemas...
hampir sekarat dan menunggu ajal
keluhan tidak lagi ingin kudengar...
cibiran tidak kuinginkan....
tetesan air mata tidak kubutuhkan...
yang ku ingin dengar hanya ajakan para manusia untuk memperbaiki aku..
yang ku ingini hanya cucuran keringat manusia untuk memperbaikiku..
dan yang aku butuhkan hanya mereka merawatku

jangan pernah marah jika suatu saat aku sekarat karena manusia tidak memenuhi apa yang telah kukatakan...
saat aku sekarat
air akan menutupi seluruh tanah yang telah lama diinjak oleh manusia
udara akan membuat paru-paru manusia kehilangan dirinya
tanah akan menghilangkan semua nyawa yang menyentuhnya dan menginjaknya...
walaupun pangeran siang akan tetap bersinar saat aku sekarat,sinarnya akan membakar semua yang ada di dalamku karena disaat itu terjadi tentaraku telah habis

pesanku sebelum ini terjadi hanya satu
turuti semua yang telah kukatakan....
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hidup adalah anugerah
anugerah yang harus melewati bunga yang bermekaran
ataupun kerikil tajam

saat kerikil yang begitu tajam menusuk kaki
saat tubuh harus terkulai lemas
saat iman sedikit demi sedikit tercabut dari akar yang kokoh
saat mata tak bisa berhenti meluapkan kesedihan dan kesengsaraan

disaat itulah jalan terbagi menjadi dua
jalan yang tetap lurus
ataupun jalan yang berbelok

hidup juga adalah pilihan untuk tetap di jalanNya ataupun tidak
untuk tetap pada jalan lurus tempat kebahagiaan tiada tara menanti
untuk berpaling pada jalan berbelok tempat kesengsaraan yang sebenarnya menunggu
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dibawah sinar terang sang pangeran siang ataupun sang ratu malam

konser akan segera dimulai
para timah panas sudah datang pada tuannya
mereka akan membuat tuannya menyanyikan teriakan mereka
setelah itu tuannya akan memberhentikan ketukan jantungnya
dan para penyanyi utama akan mendendangkan tangisan untuk mereka yang telah memberhentikan ketukan jantungnya

konser tidak akan pernah selesai sebelum pemimpinnya menghentikan gerakan tangan
disaat itulah simfoni telah berakhir
dan penonton akan berdiri memberikan tepuk tangan
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